Unit Key 3
Unit Key 5
Some perfect tenses could be translated by the English perfect, as indicated in 1. From here on, the absence of a part of the verb 'to be' is not noted.
__________ ____________ _____________ ____________________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _______________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _____________ ________ __ _
- At length you overcame (or have overcome) the Carthaginians.
- We were sailing to Britain but there we saw the men of Spain.
- You dined at Tongilianus's house, O Caecilianus. Both Tongilianus and a boar have a big nose.
- Why used the boy to love the goat? I do not know but he was always stupid.
- Afterwards the Carthaginians won the friendship of the Romans.
- O Philip, the leaves of the black cypress in the garden will be dear to your daughters.
- We shall sail to Egypt and there we shall buy many statues.
- Yesterday your apples were bad, O Brutus. When will you sell good [ones]?
- I went to the library and read many books.
- We keep the vices of others in our sight (lit. eyes), our own are on our back (lit. from our back; i.e. we cannot see them).
- A donkey is beautiful to a donkey.
- A Trojan horse is inside (i.e. the enemy have effectively infiltrated).
- They turn black into white (candida is n. pl. accusative; the plural can be used for the singular according to the figure of speech enallage, which is very common in Latin verse).
- A rose flowers on thorns (lit. from thorns; a rosebush is covered with thorns but it produces objects of beauty; floruit, lit. has flowered, is a gnomic perfect; the perfect is sometimes used in Latin proverbs where is English we would normally use the present tense, but cf. faint heart never won fair lady).
- The tongue of the people is sacred (i.e. what the people say deserves unqualified respect).
- Even the autumn of beautiful creatures is beautiful (only living things can grow old and so we should translate pulchrorum by beautiful creatures rather than by beautiful things).
- Timid men never put up a monument to victory (i.e. are never victorious; on statuerunt see 14 above).
- A constant drop hollows out a stone.
- Not even a thorn will wound the good.
- He has not even a hair of a good man
(c) Gavin Betts 2000