Key to Reading Unit 13

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Unit 13

  1. In order to cross the ditches Pompey’s men pushed away the fascines placed as a barrier in front of the fortification (a fascine is a wickerwork hurdle used for defensive purposes). (Caesar, de Bello Civili, III, 46, 3 adapted)

  2. They wanted to go into these mountains so that they might escape Caesar’s cavalry and, by placing guards in the passes (lit. guards having been placed in passes), they might block the route for his (i.e. Caesar’s) army (lit. prevent the army from [using] the route) [while] they themselves could move (lit. might move) the forces of the Spaniards without danger or fear. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, I, 65, 4)

  3. Between the two camps there was a plain of about three miles. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, III, 37, 2 adapted)

  4. At that time Pompey was in Candavia and was making a journey from Macedonia to winter quarters at Apollonia and Dyrrachium (lit. to Apollonia and Dyrrachium to winter quarters). But, alarmed by the new development, he made for Apollonia with forced marches so that Caesar should not take the cities on the coast (lit. of the sea shore; magnum iter, for which the English expression is forced march, was a march during which troops were made to go as fast as possible). (Caesar, de Bello Civili, III, 11, 2 adapted)

  5. When the siege had been hindered by these many (lit. so many) things the soldiers overcame everything (lit. all these [things]) by continual labour and constructed in twenty-five days a ramp 330 feet broad and 80 feet high. (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 24, 1 adapted)

  6. Some of the soldiers, moved by [a sense of] shame, stayed behind (lit. were staying behind) so that they might avoid the suspicion of fear. (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, I, 39, 3 adapted)

  7. Caesar placed Gaius Fabius the legate and Lucius Minucius Basilus with two legions among the Remi so that they might not suffer any disaster from their neighbours. (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 90, 5 adapted)

  8. From this camp a city of the Remi, Bibrax by name, was eight miles distant. (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, II, 6, 1)

  9. Caesar, after drawing up a triple line of battle, advanced right to the enemy’s camp. Then at last the Germans were forced to lead out (lit. from necessity led out) their forces from their camp and at equal intervals according to race drew up the Harudes, Marcomani, Triboci, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii, [and] Suebi and surrounded all their line with carriages and wagons so that there should be no hope of flight (lit. in flight; the Harudes etc. were different German tribes). (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, I, 51, 1f. adapted)

  10. Pompey, however, drew up his army in front of the camp so that he might keep his reputation and the [good] opinion of men. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, III, 55, 2 adapted)

  11. After this reverse the Massilians had brought old ships from their docks to [make up] the same number and had repaired and armed them with the utmost diligence; and [to these] they had added fishing boats and covered them so that the rowers would be safe from being hit by weapons (lit. from the blows of weapons); these they filled with archers and catapults. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, II, 4, 1f. adapted)

  12. When he had learnt these things (lit. which things having been learnt) Pompey, after putting a large amount of money on the ships for the use of the army and arming two thousand men, got through to Pelusium. By chance King Ptolemy was there, a boy in age, [who was] waging war with large forces against his sister, whom a few months before he had expelled from the throne with the assistance of (lit. through) his relatives and friends. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, III, 103, 1f. adapted)

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(c) Gavin Betts 2000