Key to Reading Unit 19

Main Index
Further Study

Unit Key 18

Unit Key 20

Unit 19

  1. When there comes [to me] the very sad picture of that night when I spent [lit. in which was) my last time in the city, when I recall the night in which I left so many things dear to me, even now a tear falls from my eyes. (Ovid, Tristia, I, 3, 1-4)

  2. The crop in another’s fields is always more abundant, and a neighbouring flock has larger udders (English requires the plural). (Ovid, Ars Amatoria, I, 349f.)

  3. From the many most festive and happy days which he saw in his life that day was the most noteworthy for Publius Scipio. (Cicero, de Amicitia, 12 adapted)

  4. For Hannibal the event seemed joyous to an excessive degree and too significant for him to be able to comprehend immediately (lit. too great than that he could immediately grasp it in his mind). (Livy, XXII, 51, 3; Livy (59BC - AD17) was the great historian of the Augustan age, who wrote an account of Rome from its beginnings; of this 35 books survive from an original 142)

  5. Since Agamemnon had vowed [as an offering] to Diana the most beautiful [creature] born in his kingdom that year, he sacrificed Iphigenia, than whom nothing more beautiful had indeed then (lit. in that year) been born. (Cicero, de Officiis, III, 95)

  6. For in no way do humans come closer to the gods than by providing safety for [other] humans. (Cicero, pro Ligario, 38)

  7. The Suebi are by far the greatest and most warlike tribe of all the Germans. These are said to have a hundred districts, from each of which they take a thousand armed men every year to wage war beyond their boundaries (lit. from which each year they lead from their boundaries individual thousands of armed men for the purpose of waging war). The rest, who have remained at home, support themselves and those fighting (lit. those men, i.e. those mentioned in the previous sentence). These again in turn are in arms a year later [and] the others (lit. those) stay at home. In this way neither agriculture nor the theory and practice of war are interrupted. But there are no private or separate fields among them nor is it allowed to stay for longer than a year in one place for the purpose of cultivation. Nor do they live much on grain but chiefly on milk and livestock, and they spend much time (lit. are much) in hunting. This practice, both through the type of food and the daily exercise and freedom of life, both nourishes their strength and makes [them] men with bodies of a huge size (lit. with huge size of bodies). And they have adopted the habit of wearing in the coldest places no clothing except skins, on account of whose smallness a great part of the body is exposed, and [the habit] of washing in rivers (lit. they have brought themselves to the habit that they have no clothes . . . and they wash). (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, IV, 1, 3-10 adapted)

  8. When almost half the work had been constructed by Caesar and nine days had been taken up in this business, the ships, sent back from Dyrrachium by the consuls after they (lit. which) had transported there the first part of the army, returned to Brundisium. Pompey, either concerned by Caesar’s [siege-]works or even because he had decided from the beginning to leave Italy (lit. go out from Italy; Italiā is governed by excedere), on the arrival of the ships began to prepare for departure, and in order to delay Caesar’s attack more easily in case (lit. lest) the soldiers (i.e. of Caesar) should burst into the town immediately before (sub) his departure, he blocked the gates, walled up the streets and squares, constructed trenches across roads (lit. cross trenches on roads) and in them (ibi) planted stakes and very sharp logs; these he levelled with light wickerwork and earth. But the approaches and the two roads which went beyond the wall to the harbour he fenced with vary large beams planted [in the ground] and these [too were] very sharp. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, I, 27, 1-4)

  9. Death seizes the best [but] leaves the worst.

  10. Whoever despises death escapes it; it overtakes all the most timid. (Quintus Curtius, Historiae Alexandri Magni, IV, 14, 25)

  11. Certain cures are more serious than dangers (i.e. which they are meant to remedy).

  12. No-one was (i.e. became) an utter scoundrel quickly. (Juvenal, II, 83)

  13. The rule of habit is the most oppressive [form of rule].

  14. Humans believe their eyes more than their ears.

  15. All the deepest rivers flow with the least noise.

  16. To lose a friend is the greatest of losses.

  17. Hunger is the best spice (i.e. when sufficiently hunger we will eat anything).

  18. A timid dog barks more vigorously than it bites.

  19. The law does not care about trifles (lit. the smallest [things]).

  20. When a bad man pretends to be good (lit. himself [to be] good), he is then worst.

  21. The biggest anvil does not fear noise (lit. noises).

  22. The previous year’s crop [was] always better.

__________ ____________ _____________ ____________________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _______________ ___________ __________ __________ __________ _____________ ________ __ _
(c) Gavin Betts 2000