Key to Extra Reading: Units 26 - 31

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Extra Reading Key 21-25

Extra Reading 26-31

  1. There were in that legion Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus, very brave men [and] centurions who were close to the first rank. These had continual disputes between themselves as to which of the two should be preferred to the other, and every year they fought with the greatest of rivalry for the position. From these, Pullo, when there was very fierce fighting at the fortifications, said, 'Why are you hesitating, Vorenus, or what opportunity for proving your courage are you waiting for? This day will decide our disagreements.' When he said this he went outside the fortifications and rushed [into] where the densest part of the enemy was [to be] seen. Nor did Vorenus confine himself to the rampart (lit. contain himself with the rampart) but, fearing the opinion of all, followed (on the tense of veritus see 14.1/4). When a short space away (lit. short space having been left), Pullo hurled his javelin into the enemy and transfixed one of the crowd who was running forward. When the latter was hit and killed the enemy protected [his body] with their shields [and] all threw weapons at Pullo and did not allow him to advance. Pullo's shield was pierced through and a spear was fixed in his baldric. This chance turned back his scabbard and obstructed his right hand as he tried to draw his sword (a baldric was a belt hanging from the right shoulder to the left thigh to which a solder's scabbard and sword were attached; a Gallic spear hit Pullo's baldric in such a way as to dislodge both baldric and scabbard from their usual positions), and the enemy surrounded him, hampered [as he was]. His rival Vorenus ran up to him and helped him in his difficulties. The whole crowd quickly turned to him from Pullo; they imagined the latter transfixed by the spear. Vorenus fought hand-to-hand with his sword (lit. did the thing at close quarters with sword) and, after killing one man, drove the rest back a little. While he was pressing on too eagerly he was brought to a lower spot and fell. Pullo in turn gave him help when [he was] surrounded, and, after killing many, both retired safe[ly] to inside the fortifications with the greatest praise. In their dispute and contest fortune manipulated them (lit. turned them this way and that) in this way (sic) so that each rival helped and saved the other, and a judgement could not be made as to which of the two should be considered superior (lit. seemed to be needing-to-be-preferred) to the other in courage. (Caesar, de Bello Gallico. V, 44 adapted)

  2. Lament, O Loves and Cupids, and all people of finer feelings (lit. how much there is of more refined people); the sparrow of my girl has died, the sparrow [who was] my girl's darling, whom she loved more than her eyes. For he was honey-sweet and knew (norat = noverat 23.1/4) his mistress as well as a girl knows her mother (in the language of slaves the emphatic pronouns ipse/ipsa were used for respectfully referring to a slave's owner; cf. the Irish use of himself) nor used he move from her lap, but jumping around, now here, now there, he chirped to his mistress alone. He (qui refers back to the passer) now goes along the shaded road to the place from where they say that no-one returns. But a curse on you (lit. may it be badly for you), evil shades of Orcus who consume all things fair. You have taken so beautiful a sparrow from me (mihi dative of disadvantage - 28.1/1e). O evil deed! (lit. evilly done). O unhappy little sparrow! Because of you (lit. through your work) the swollen little eyes of my girl are red through weeping (on the diminutives cf. Hadrian's farewell to his soul at 6.2.13). (Catullus, 3)

  3. They say that the Spartan Lysander, of whom I recently made mention, was accustomed to remark that Sparta was the most honourable residence for old age; for nowhere else is so much [respect] given to age, nowhere else is old age more honoured. Indeed (quin etiam 26.1/2f), it has been recorded that, when a certain old man came to the theatre during games at Athens, nowhere in the large gathering was a place given to him by his own citizens; however, when he approached the Spartans, who, since they were envoys, had sat together in a certain spot, they are said to have all risen and to have received the old man to sit down (sessum is supine of purpose). When many rounds of applause had been given to them (quibus i.e. the Spartans) a certain one of them said that the Athenians knew what was right but were unwilling to do it (the last sentence is expressed as indirect statement following on from memoriae proditum est although dicuntur, which involves a different construction, occurs in the previous sentence). (Cicero, de Senectute, 63f.)

  4. 'Unhappy Dido, so a true message had come to me that you were dead and had sought (lit. followed) your end with a sword? (with extinctam and secutam supply te esse) Alas, was I the cause of your death? I swear by the stars, by the upper gods and if there is any faith below the lowest earth (i.e. here in the Underworld), unwilling[ly], O Queen, I went from your shore. But the commands of the gods (deum = deorum 3.1/3a), which now force me to go through these shades, through places wild through neglect and [through] deep night (the Underworld had no illumination and was wild and neglected because it was not cultivated in any way by the shades of the dead, who inhabited it) drove me with their dictates; nor was I able to believe that I was bringing this so great sorrow to you by my departure. Stop (lit. stay your step), and do not withdraw yourself from my sight. Whom do you flee? This [word] which I now speak to you is the last [allowed] by fate (alloquor here takes two accusatives; fato is ablative of cause, lit. by reason of fate).' With such words Aeneas tried to soothe (lenibat = leniebat; the imperfect here is conative (tried to do something), a less common use) the shade, angry and grim-eyed (lit. looking grim things), and he shed (lit. stirred up) tears. She, turned away, held her eyes fixed on the ground (solo < solum) and was not more affected when Aeneas began to speak (lit. speech having been begun) than if hard flint or Marpessian rock (i.e. marble) stood there. Finally, she snatched herself away and fled back in hostile fashion (inimica) to the shady wood, where Sichaeus, her former husband, answered her cares (lit. replied to her in respect of her cares) and returned her love in equal measure. (Vergil, Aeneid, VI, 456-474)

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(c) Gavin Betts 2000